Gốc từ Hy Lạp và La Tinh

Tại sao chúng ta nên học gốc từ Hy Lạp hay La Tinh?

Trên 60% các từ tiếng Anh có gốc từ La Tinh. Việc làm quen với các gốc La Tinh sẽ rất hữu ích trong phương pháp học tiếng Anh. Khi gặp các từ có cùng gốc, người học có thể dễ dàng phán đoán nghĩa của chúng dù chưa học bao giờ, điều này giúp giảm thời gian học từ vựng do có thể học được nhiều từ khác nhau có cùng gốc.

VD gốc từ port nghĩa là mang, vận chuyển.
 + portable = nhẹ và đủ nhỏ để dễ dàng mang theo hoặc di chuyển.
 + transportation = di chuyển người hoặc hàng hóa từ nơi này đến nơi khác (trong đó gốc từ trans có nghĩa là băng qua).
 + import = mang vào từ bên ngoài.
 + report = mang lại thông tin cho ai (báo cáo).
  1. ambi - both (cả hai)
    • ambiguous - mơ hồ : having or expressing more than one possible meaning
    • ambidextrous - thuận cả hai bên : able to use both hands equally well
  2. aqua - water (nước)
    • aquarium - bể nuôi cá : a tank, usually with glass sides, or a pool, bowl, etc. for keeping live water animals and water plants
    • aquamarine - ngọc xanh biển : a transparent, pale bluish-green variety of beryl, used in jewelry
  3. aud - to hear (nghe ngóng)
    • audience - thính giả : the group of people together in one place to watch or listen to a play, film, someone speaking, etc.
    • audition - thử vai : to give, watch, or listen to a short performance that tests whether a performer’s skills are suitable for a particular event or group
  4. bene - good (tốt)
    • benefactor - ân nhân : someone who gives money to help an organization, society, or person
    • benefit - lợi ích : a helpful or good effect, or something intended to help
  5. cent - one hundred (một trăm)
    • century - thế kỷ : a period of 100 years
    • percent - phần trăm : for or out of every 100, shown by the symbol %
  6. circum - around (xung quanh)
    • circumference - chu vi hình tròn : the line surrounding a circular space, or the length of this line
    • circumscribe - khoanh vùng : if you circumscribe a triangle, square, etc., you draw a circle that surrounds it and touches each of its corners
  7. contra/ counter - against (chống lại, đối nghịch)
    • contradict - mâu thuẫn : (of people) to say the opposite of what someone else has said, or (of one fact or statement) to be so different from another fact or statement that one of them must be wrong
    • encounter - chạm trán : to experience a situation, especially something that is unexpected or unpleasant
  8. dict - to say (nói)
    • dictation - đọc cho người khác viết : the act of saying something aloud, so that your words can be prepared in writing by someone else
    • predict - dự đoán (nói trước) : to say that an event or action will happen in the future, especially as a result of knowledge or experience
  9. duc/ duct - to lead (lãnh đạo)
    • conduct - quản lý, hướng dẫn : to lead someone to a particular place
    • induce - gây ra : to persuade someone to do something, or to cause something to happen
  10. fac - to do, to make (tạo ra, làm)
    • factory - nhà máy : a building or buildings where people use machines to produce goods
    • manufacture - sản xuất : to produce goods in large numbers, usually in a factory using machines
  11. form - shape (hình dạng)
    • conform - tuân thủ : to behave according to a group’s usual standards and expectations, or to operate according to a rule
    • reform - canh tân/ cải cách : to make an improvement, especially by changing a person's behaviour or the structure of something
  12. fort - strength (chịu đựng)
    • fortitude - chịu đựng : bravery when dealing with pain or difficulty, esp. over a long period
    • fortress - pháo đài : a large, strong building or group of buildings that can be defended from attack
  13. fract - break (phá vỡ)
    • fracture - bẻ gãy, đập bể : to break, crack, or split
    • fraction - phép chia : a breaking or dividing, specif., of the Host in the Mass
  14. ject - throw (ném, làm cho xê dịch, biến đổi)
    • reject - từ chối : to refuse to accept, consider, submit to, take for some purpose, or use. To throw out an idea
    • interject - xen vào : to throw in between or among other things
  15. jud - judge (phán xét)
    • judicial - tư pháp : allowed, enforced, or set by order of a judge or law court
    • prejudice - định kiến : a judgment or opinion formed before the facts are known; preconceived idea, favorable or, more usually, unfavorable
  16. mal - bad (xấu)
    • malevolent - độc ác : wishing evil or harm to others; having or showing ill will; malicious
    • malefactor - người làm điều bất lương : an evildoer or criminal
  17. mit - to send (gửi)
    • transmit - chuyển giao : to send or cause to go from one person or place to another, esp. across intervening space or distance; transfer; dispatch; convey
    • committee - ủy ban : a group of people chosen, as from the members of a legislature or club, to consider, investigate, and report or act on some matter or on matters of a certain kind
  18. mort - death (cái chết)
    • mortal - người phàm : of a human being considered as a being who must eventually die
    • postmortem - khám nghiệm tử thi : of or pertaining to examination of the body after death
  19. multi - many (nhiều)
    • multimedia - đa phương tiện : a combination of media, as film, tape recordings, slides, and special lighting effects, used for entertainment or education
    • multiple - nhiều phần : having or consisting of many parts, elements, etc.; more than one or once; manifold or complex
  20. pater - father (cha)
    • paternal - gia trưởng : of, like, or characteristic of a father or fatherhood; fatherly
    • paternity - quan hệ cha con : the state of being a father; fatherhood
  21. port - to carry (mang, vận chuyển)
    • transport - vận chuyển : to carry or cause to go from one place to another, esp over some distance
    • sport - thể thao : to carry one away from everyday concerns
  22. rupt - to break (làm cho vỡ)
    • bankrupt - phá sản : anyone unable to pay his or her debts
    • disrupt - gián đoạn : to break apart; split up; rend asunder
  23. scrib/ script - to write (viết)
    • inscription - dòng chữ : something inscribed or engraved, as on a coin or monument
    • prescribe - kê đơn : to order or advise as a medicine or treatment said of physicians, etc
  24. sect/ sec - to cut (cắt)
    • bisect - chia đôi : to divide into two equal parts
    • section - phần : any of the more or less distinct parts into which something is or may be divided or from which it is made up.
  25. sent - to feel, to send (cảm xúc, gửi)
    • consent - bằng lòng : to agree (to do something)
    • resent - bực bội : to feel or show displeasure and hurt or indignation at (some act, remark, etc.) or toward (a person), from a sense of being injured or offended
  26. spect - to look (quan sát)
    • inspection - kiểm tra : official examination or review, as of troops
    • spectator - khán giả : a person who sees or watches something without taking an active part; onlooker
  27. struct - to build (xây dựng)
    • destruction - sự phá hủy : the act or process of destroying; demolition or slaughter
    • restructure - tái cấu trúc : to plan or provide a new structure or organization for
  28. vid/ vis - to see (nhìn)
    • television - truyền hình : a system for transmitting visual images and sound that are reproduced on screens, chiefly used to broadcast programs for entertainment, information, and education.
    • video - video : designating or of the display of data on a computer screen
  29. voc/ vok - to call (nói hoặc đọc với một giọng lớn; kêu la; thông báo)
    • vocalize - phát âm : to give utterance to; express with the voice; speak or sing
    • advocate - biện hộ : a person who speaks or writes in support of something
  1. anthropo - man; human; humanity (nhân loại, thuộc về loài người)
    • anthropology - nhân học : the study of humans, esp. of the variety, physical and cultural characteristics, distribution, customs, social relationships, etc. of humanity
    • philanthropy - từ thiện : the giving of money to people who need it, without wanting anything in return
  2. auto - self (tự, tự bản thân mình)
    • autobiography - hồi ký : the art or practice of writing one's own biography
    • autonomy - quyền tự trị : the fact or condition of being autonomous; self-government; independence
  3. bio - life (cuộc sống)
    • biology - sinh học : the science that deals with the origin, history, physical characteristics, life processes, habits, etc. of living organisms, as plants and animals, and of viruses: it includes botany, zoology, and microbiology
    • biography - tiểu sử : the histories of individual lives, considered as a branch of literature
  4. chron - time (thời gian)
    • chronological - theo niên đại : arranged in the order of occurrence
    • chronic - mãn tính : lasting a long time or recurring often see also acute
  5. dyna - power (sức mạnh)
    • dynamic - năng động : (of a person) positive in attitude and full of energy and new ideas.
    • dynamite - thuốc nổ : a powerful explosive made by soaking nitroglycerin into some absorbent, such as ammonium nitrate and wood pulp
  6. dys - bad; hard; unlucky (xấu, điềm xấu)
    • dysfunctional - rối loạn chức năng : unable to function normally, properly, etc
    • dyslexic - mắc chứng khó đọc : difficulty with reading because of a slight disorder of their brain
  7. gram - thing written (những điều được viết)
    • epigram - châm chích, chế nhạo : a short poem with a witty or satirical point
    • telegram - điện tín : a message transmitted by telegraph
  8. graph - writing (viết tay)
    • graphic - đồ họa : written, inscribed, or recorded in letters of the alphabet, meaningful symbols, etc
    • phonograph - máy ghi âm : a device for reproducing sound that has been mechanically transcribed in a spiral groove on a circular disk or cylinder: a stylus following the groove in the revolving disk or cylinder transmits vibrations which are converted into sound
  9. hetero - different (khác nhau)
    • heteronym - khác âm : a word with the same spelling as another or others, but with different meaning and pronunciation
    • heterogeneous - không đồng nhất : composed of unrelated or unlike elements or parts; varied; miscellaneous
  10. homo - same (giống nhau)
    • homonym - đồng âm : a word with the same pronunciation as another but with a different meaning, origin, and, usually, spelling
    • homogenous - đồng nhất : having similarity in structure because of common descent
  11. hydr - water (nước)
    • hydration - cấp nước : to combine with water
    • dehydrated - mất nước : having lost a large amount of water from the body.
  12. hyper - over; above; beyond (vượt ra ngoài)
    • hyperactive - hiếu động : extremely, esp. abnormally, active
    • hyperbole - cường điệu : exaggeration for effect and not meant to be taken literally
  13. hypo - below; beneath (ở dưới, ở phía dưới)
    • hypothermia - hạ thân nhiệt : a subnormal body temperature
    • hypothetical - giả thuyết : based on, involving, or having the nature of a hypothesis; assumed; supposed
  14. logy - study of (nghiên cứu về)
    • biology - sinh học : the science that deals with the origin, history, physical characteristics, life processes, habits, etc. of living organisms, as plants and animals, and of viruses: it includes botany, zoology, and microbiology
    • psychology - tâm lý học : the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes
  15. meter/ metr - measure (đo lường, kích cỡ)
    • thermometer - nhiệt kế : an instrument for measuring temperatures, consisting of a graduated glass tube with a sealed, capillary bore in which mercury, colored alcohol, etc. rises or falls as it expands or contracts from changes in temperature see also Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin, Reaumur
    • perimeter - chu vi : the outer boundary of a figure or area
  16. micro - small (nhỏ)
    • microbe - vi khuẩn : a microscopic organism; esp., any of the bacteria that cause disease; germ
    • microscope - kính hiển vi : is a scientific instrument which makes very small objects look bigger so that more detail can be seen
  17. mis/ miso - hate (thù ghét)
    • misanthrope - người chán đời : is a person who does not like other people
    • misogyny - tánh ghét đàn bà : is a strong dislike of women
  18. mono - one (một)
    • monologue - độc thoại : a long speech by one speaker, esp. one monopolizing the conversation
    • monotonous - đơn điệu : going on in the same tone without variation
  19. morph - form; shape (hình dạng)
    • morphology - hình thái ngôn ngữ học : the branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of animals and plants
    • morphing - biến hình : a special-effects process used in film or video production in which persons or objects seem to change shape, form, etc. in a smoothly continuous series of images created in a digital computer
  20. nym - name (từ/ cụm từ dùng gọi tên người/ vật)
    • antonym - từ trái nghĩa : a word that is opposite in meaning to another word
    • synonym - từ đồng nghĩa : a word having the same or nearly the same meaning in one or more senses as another in the same language
  21. phil - love (tình yêu)
  22. phobia - fear (sự sợ hãi)
    • claustrophobia - chứng sợ hãi sự ngột ngạt : an abnormal fear of being in an enclosed or confined place
    • phobic - hội chứng sợ hãi : having a phobia or phobias
  23. photo/ phos - light (ánh sáng)
    • phosphorus - phốt pho : a nonmetallic chemical element, normally a white, phosphorescent, waxy solid, becoming yellow when exposed to light
    • photophone - máy chụp ảnh : a device for the communication of sound on a beam of light. Used to transmit the first ever wireless telephone messages
  24. pseudo - false (sai)
    • pseudoscience - khoa học giả : a discipline or approach that pretends to be or has a close resemblance to science
    • pseudonym - bút danh : is a name which someone, usually a writer, uses instead of his or her real name
  25. psycho - soul; spirit (linh hồn, tâm hồn)
    • psychology - tâm lý học : the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes
    • psychic - ngoại cảm : a person who is supposedly sensitive to forces beyond the physical world
  26. scope - viewing instrument (dụng cũ hỗ trợ nhìn)
    • microscope - kính hiển vi : is a scientific instrument which makes very small objects look bigger so that more detail can be seen
    • telescope - kính thiên văn : an optical instrument for making distant objects, as the stars, appear nearer and consequently larger: it consists of two or more lenses or mirrors
  27. techno - art; science; skill (nghệ thuật, khoa học, kĩ năng)
    • technique - kĩ thuật : the method of procedure (with reference to practical or formal details), or way of using basic skills, in rendering an artistic work or carrying out a scientific or mechanical operation
    • technological - kỹ thuật : of or having to do with technology
  28. tele - far off (xa cách)
    • television - vô tuyế́n truyền hình : a system for transmitting visual images and sound that are reproduced on screens, chiefly used to broadcast programs for entertainment, information, and education
    • telephone - điện thoại : a system for transmitting speech or computerized information over distances, usually by converting sounds into electric impulses that are sent through a network of wires and cables: some systems transmit by means of radio waves
  29. therm - heat (nhiệt độ)
    • thermal - nhiệt độ : relating to or caused by heat or by changes in temperature
    • thermometer - nhiệt kế : an instrument for measuring temperatures, consisting of a graduated glass tube with a sealed, capillary bore in which mercury, colored alcohol, etc. rises or falls as it expands or contracts from changes in temperature see also Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin, Reaumur
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